Full Hawkfest Schedule & Program Descriptions

CLICK BELOW TO JUMP TO SECTIONS OF THE SCHEDULE
*Saturday Program Descriptions & Speak Bios
*Saturday Lunch Options (Area Restaurants)
*Friday/Sunday Birding Trips
*Interpreter and Tour Guide Bios

10am to 4pm everyday: Visit the Hawk Watch to observe migrating raptors and learn how the count is conducted by a paid contractor. Be sure to wear warm, layered clothing.

Friday April 3, 4:30 to 6:30pm: Evening Early Registration and Meet and Greet Reception, Holiday Inn Express

Saturday April 4:

8:30am: Registration and coffee at Mackinaw City School

9:00am: Plenary talk: “Flight Adaptations of Raptors” by Josh Haas

As predators and meat-eaters, raptors must first capture their prey.  How is that done and how easy is it?  This talk will wow you with the many adaptations that allow birds of prey to master their challenging lifestyle.  Special features include their body and wing shapes, weight, and feathering patterns.  These and other structural and physiological factors result in spectacular feats of flight by raptors, from tail chases to dives from great heights.

Josh Haas Bio: Past President of Battle Creek Audubon, first developed a love for hawks working with the birds of prey at the Kalamazoo Nature Center. A hawkwatching trip to Lake Erie Metropark opened his eyes to hawks in migration. Perplexed by seeing specks at a distance with an overwhelming itch to know what they were, he started learning from veteran hawk watchers and was hooked. He spent seven seasons helping the Detroit River Hawkwatch as a relief counter. His goal of making hawks accessible to everyone spawned the “Hawks on the Wing” instructional video on identifying hawks in flight. Josh co-owns Hawks at a Glance and Glances At Nature Photography where he sells his work, teaches lessons and workshops, and leads bird photography trips around the Midwest.

10:15am: Four Breakout Session Choices

“Ecology of Wintering Eagles across the Upper Midwest: A New Monitoring Technique” by David Cuthrell

Eastern Golden Eagles are known to migrate and winter throughout the Upper Midwest. However, little recent information has been acquired concerning their migration pathways, winter movements, and winter habitat use in Michigan.  Although Bald Eagles are more commonly observed, many of the same information gaps exist for this species. You will learn about their ecology as well as a camera-trapping technique which could provide critical information, and well see a variety of eagle photos captured by game cameras.

David Cuthrell Bio: Eastern Golden Eagle Working Group member, a conservation scientist with the Michigan Natural Features Inventory, part of MSU Extension. He has assisted with a variety of rare species surveys throughout the state and has worked with Northern Goshawks and Red-shouldered Hawks for over two decades. Believing that “conservation requires knowledge and action,” he disseminates information to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Michigan DNR, and through publications, training workshops, and participation in many professional organizations. When he is not chasing bugs or sloshing through prairie fens, he enjoys time with his family and umpiring baseball.

“Will Raptors Survive Climate Change?” by Will Weber

What can we learn about raptors’ ability to survive climate change in the geological past? How will our familiar, present-day species of raptors fare as the climate continues to warm? I will discuss how data from hawk watches like MSRW may help us make predictions and develop conservation efforts.

Will Weber Bio: Ph.D. co-founded the Holiday Beach Migration Observatory and serves on the advisory committee of the Detroit River Hawk Watch.  As a board member of the Hawk Migration Association of North America for more than two decades, he was instrumental in developing HMANA’s HawkCount database and the Raptor Population Index which utilizes HawkCount data.  He co-founded Journeys International, Inc., and has led more than 60 international nature and culture expeditions to Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Pacific.

“Cultural Significance of Eagles to Odawa People” by Netawn Kiogima

I am from the Bald Headed Eagle Clan.  Traditionally, our clan system was our governing system and described our roles in the community.  I take my Eagle Clan role very serious and I would love to share with you that important part of my life and how it is relevant to our society.  Miigwech (thank you)

Netawn Kiogima Bio: Her Anishinaabe name is Good Walking Woman and my birth name is Netawn Alice Kiogima. She is from the Bald Headed Eagle Clan.  She comes to you from the Land of the Crooked Tree , Biidaasige. She is an Anishinaabe, People of the Three Fires, Odawa woman. The daughter of Archie Jr. and Regina Sr. Kiogima of Waganakising. Married for over 20 years to Robert Smith, Ojibwe from LCO, Wisconsin, they have two beautiful children and are grandparents to their first amazing granddaughter this past Fall.  As native people, they are related to the dodeman, or clan. Traditionally, her clan system was our governing system and everybody had a role. The whole community was involved and we all took care of each other.  She takes her Eagle Clan role very serious and would love to share with you that important part of her  life and how it is relevant to our society.

“Introduction to Raptor Migration in the Great Lakes“ by Russell Edmonds

An introduction to Raptor Migration in the Great Lakes region geared toward new hawk watchers.  Why are migrating raptors concentrated at Mackinaw in the Spring and at Detroit in the Fall?  What other hawk watch sites are in the Great Lakes area?  Where can I find historical data to help plan my next hawk watching trip?  How is the migration data collected at these sites used and how can it help with better understanding hawks and how to protect them?  This talk provides an introduction to hawk migration in the region, the tools used to record migration data, and a greater appreciation for the efforts of hawk watchers around the Great Lakes.

Russell Edmonds Bio: Recently retired from a large manufacturing company where he worked as an Environmental Engineer.  He attended his first hawk watch in 1975, has observed raptor migration at eight watch sites in the Great Lakes region since then, has volunteered at Hawk Ridge Bird Observatory in Duluth Minnesota for over 20 years, and has belonged to Hawk Migration Association of North America since 2004.  Russ and his wife Ann are retiring from Indiana to a cabin on Brimley Bay in the UP, with plans to be more active with Mackinac Straits Raptor Watch and Whitefish Point Bird Observatory.


11:15am
: Four Breakout Session Choices

“Hawk Watching: A Novice-Friendly Hawk Identification Experience” by Bob Pettit

Hawk watching is a thrilling type of birdwatching. Learn to identify hawks in flight during migration. This workshop highlights using binoculars, recognizing hawk types, learning flight characters, discovering flight ID clues, and comprehending migration mechanics. You will receive ample handouts, learn how raptors behave in flight, and hear about experiencing raptor migration. You will become more skilled in hawk identification and better appreciate the migration, beauty, and role of birds of prey.

Bob Petit Bio: He gained his love for spotting and counting birds from his mother and ornithologist father.  He earned his Masters degree in Ornithology from Central Michigan University and became a Biology Professor at Monroe County Community College. Bob co-founded the Erie Shores Birding Association, chaired the Whitefish Point Bird Observatory and the Hawk Migration Association of North America, and was president of the Holiday Beach Migration Observatory. He has volunteered as raptor observer for over 30 years, amassing 1,500+ hours of observation, and has conducted workshops on hawk identification for over 25 years.  For Bob, it’s not about racking up a list of species. It’s about camaraderie and giving a little something back, ‘seeing it, sharing it with other folks, and then sharing the data with the world so we can see the health of our environment.’

“Bald Eagle Research and Monitoring in Northern Michigan, Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians” by Bill Parsons

The talk will describe the extensive monitoring done on Bald Eagle nests, especially in Emmet and Cheboygan Counties.   The Natural Resource Department of the Little Traverse Bay Bands measures both occupancy and productivity.  You will also hear updates about telemetry data and seasonal movements of regional Bald Eagles.

Bill Parsons Bio: He works as the Inland Fish and Wildlife Biologist for the Natural Resource Department of the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians.  Bill grew up in Mason MI and earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Biology/Conservation from Central Michigan University. His education and experience with CMU began his exploration of northern Michigan fish and wildlife resources, launching a passion that continues today. Bill joined the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians Natural Resource Department in 2002 and works as a biologist on many fish and wildlife projects in the 1836 Treaty Ceded Territory of Michigan. Bill lives in Bliss with his girlfriend and dogs and is an avid outdoorsman, fisherman and hunter.

“Owls of the Straits of Mackinac” by Nick Alioto

When the hawks roost at dusk, owls take over the migration flyways.  Learn about these birds and the information gleaned from many years of spring and fall banding studies.  Nick Alioto will share stories from banding owls both here and in Ontario, and how he combines the night shift working with owls and his day-time passion of trapping hawks.

Nick Alioto Bio: Nick graduated from Bishops University in Quebec, Canada in 2016.  He then trained at Thunder Cape Bird Observatory in Ontario, part of the Canadian Migration Monitoring Network on the north shore of Lake Superior.  He worked as Assistant Owl Bander for MSRW in 2017, gaining more experience that advanced his career.   In 2018, he managed both the passerine and owl research at the Hilliardton Marsh Research and Education Center in northern Ontario.  He returned to MSRW for two more owl seasons as Lead Bander and volunteered with diurnal raptor trapping and banding American Kestrel nestlings.  In 2019, he worked for the University of Illinois on an Eastern Whip-poor-will project using GPS and VHF transmitters, and was the principal summer hawk trapper for Boise State’s Intermountain Bird Observatory. 

“Estimating Population Size of Golden Eagles using Pennsylvania Hawk Count Data and Statistical Models” by Andrew Dennhardt

This talk reveals how hawk-count data combined with computer models yielded estimates of Golden Eagle population size in eastern North America. Dennhardt’s Master’s thesis work revealed that 24% of Golden Eagles migrating through Pennsylvania in autumn would fly close enough to a hawk-count site to be counted.  His research and analysis provides the first quantitative estimates of the size of the eastern Golden Eagle population, and it demonstrates a unique approach that uses citizen-science (hawk-count) data and statistical models of migration to address a pressing conservation goal—population size estimation.

Andrew Dennhardt Bio: a doctoral student at Michigan State University who won a Student Scholarship to attend the 2019 Mackinaw Raptor Fest.  He has studied raptors for >10 years at Southern Illinois University, various contract positions, and as a Master’s student at West Virginia University.  He has worked at various times with peregrine falcons, northern spotted owls, northern goshawks, barn owls, osprey, and bald and golden eagles.  A self-described quantitative population and community ecologist, he is eager to further develop his scientific communication and outreach skills and further raptor ecology, conservation, and management.

12:00pm: Lunch at restaurant of your choice

Area Restaurants Open in Winter:

1. *Audies, 314 N. Nicolet St.

2. *BC Pizza, 209 E. Central Ave.

3. Biere de Mac Brew Works, 14277 Mackinaw Hwy.

4. Dixie Saloon, 401 E. Central Ave.

5. *Keyhole Bar and Grill, 323 E. Central Ave.

6. Mackinaw Pastie & Cookie Co., 117 W. Jamet St.

7. Nonna Lisa’s Restaurant, 312 S. Huron St. (Featuring FREE Taste of Mackinaw event — offerings of food and drink by local restaurants)

8. O’Reilly’s Irish Pub, 106 Langlade St.

9. Rusted Spoke Brewing Co., 810 S. Huron

10. *Harbor Light Grill, 6492 Paradise Tr., Carp Lake

*Denotes Raptor Fest Partner

All restaurants are within the Mackinaw City limits and very nearby.  Directions to all restaurants can be found using your smart phone maps apps.  For further directions, please contact any number of staff and volunteers for more guidance.

1:45pm: Keynote Presentation

“Status and Nesting Ecology of Red-shouldered Hawks in Northern Michigan” by David Cuthrell

In the early part of the 20th century the Red-shouldered Hawk was common in southern Michigan.  Since then, their breeding range shifted away from southern Michigan.  We conducted nest productivity surveys for 8 years to assess the status of the Red-shouldered Hawk population in northern Michigan.  Over 500 nests were studied for productivity measures such as nest-site fidelity, nest success, average brood size, and nest predation.  We found that nesting territories had a high re-occupancy rate between years, and that territories tended to be evenly distributed roughly a mile apart in areas with large contiguous tracts of suitable forest habitat.  Nest productivity was high, with 65% of nests successfully producing at least one chick that fledged.

David Cuthrell Bio: Eastern Golden Eagle Working Group member, a conservation scientist with the Michigan Natural Features Inventory, part of MSU Extension. He has assisted with a variety of rare species surveys throughout the state and has worked with Northern Goshawks and Red-shouldered Hawks for over two decades. Believing that “conservation requires knowledge and action,” he disseminates information to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Michigan DNR, and through publications, training workshops, and participation in many professional organizations. When he is not chasing bugs or sloshing through prairie fens, he enjoys time with his family and umpiring baseball.

3:00pm: Four Breakout Session Choices

“Hawks on the Wing: Tip of Photographing Hawks in Flight” by Josh Haas

Hawks in flight pose big challenges to aspiring bird photographers.  Tricky lighting and erratic raptors often seem like they want nothing more than to avoid the camera.  Josh Haas will share some of his favorite techniques for capturing inspiring images of hawks in flight and getting around tracking and focus issues.  He will share his favorite spots for the best photo opportunities and tell how to prepare for your days of photographing hawks.

Josh Haas Bio: Past President of Battle Creek Audubon, first developed a love for hawks working with the birds of prey at the Kalamazoo Nature Center. A hawkwatching trip to Lake Erie Metropark opened his eyes to hawks in migration. Perplexed by seeing specks at a distance with an overwhelming itch to know what they were, he started learning from veteran hawk watchers and was hooked. He spent seven seasons helping the Detroit River Hawkwatch as a relief counter. His goal of making hawks accessible to everyone spawned the “Hawks on the Wing” instructional video on identifying hawks in flight. Josh co-owns Hawks at a Glance and Glances At Nature Photography where he sells his work, teaches lessons and workshops, and leads bird photography trips around the Midwest.

“Mackinac Bridge Then and Now” by Kim Nowack

In this presentation, you will learn about the history of Straits area transportation and the planning, design, and building of the Mackinac Bridge more than 60 years ago.  Ms. Nowack will describe the extensive short and long-range plans for maintenance on the bridge for safety and structural purposes.  She will also cover bridge-related current events.

Kim Nowack Bio: Kim received her Civil Engineering degree from Michigan Technological University in 1985 and immediately started her career with the Michigan Department of Transportation.  In 2002, Kim accepted the position of Chief Engineer for the Mackinac Bridge Authority where she was responsible for all engineering and maintenance oversight of the bridge. She was the first woman to hold this position in the Bridge Authority’s 60+ year history.  Kim was appointed to the position of Executive Director of the Mackinac Bridge in 2019 and is the first woman to hold this position.  Kim was recently inducted into the MTU Academy of Civil and Environmental Engineers.

“Introduction to Raptor Migration in the Great Lakes“ by Russell Edmonds

An introduction to Raptor Migration in the Great Lakes region geared toward new hawk watchers.  Why are migrating raptors concentrated at Mackinaw in the Spring and at Detroit in the Fall?  What other hawk watch sites are in the Great Lakes area?  Where can I find historical data to help plan my next hawk watching trip?  How is the migration data collected at these sites used and how can it help with better understanding hawks and how to protect them?  This talk provides an introduction to hawk migration in the region, the tools used to record migration data, and a greater appreciation for the efforts of hawk watchers around the Great Lakes.

Russell Edmonds Bio: Recently retired from a large manufacturing company where he worked as an Environmental Engineer.  He attended his first hawk watch in 1975, has observed raptor migration at eight watch sites in the Great Lakes region since then, has volunteered at Hawk Ridge Bird Observatory in Duluth Minnesota for over 20 years, and has belonged to Hawk Migration Association of North America since 2004.  Russ and his wife Ann are retiring from Indiana to a cabin on Brimley Bay in the UP, with plans to be more active with Mackinac Straits Raptor Watch and Whitefish Point Bird Observatory.

“Will Raptors Survive Climate Change?” by Will Weber

What can we learn about raptors’ ability to survive climate change in the geological past? How will our familiar, present-day species of raptors fare as the climate continues to warm? I will discuss how data from hawk watches like MSRW may help us make predictions and develop conservation efforts.

Will Weber Bio: Ph.D. co-founded the Holiday Beach Migration Observatory and serves on the advisory committee of the Detroit River Hawk Watch.  As a board member of the Hawk Migration Association of North America for more than two decades, he was instrumental in developing HMANA’s HawkCount database and the Raptor Population Index which utilizes HawkCount data.  He co-founded Journeys International, Inc., and has led more than 60 international nature and culture expeditions to Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Pacific.

4:30pm: “Michigan Raptors: Live Birds of Prey” (St. Anthony’s Church)

Survival at its finest.  Meet live, non-releasable birds of prey that can be identified right here at the Mackinac Straits Raptor Watch.  The birds will reveal their remarkable survival adaptations and behaviors. There will be plenty of time to discuss habitat needs, conservation status and special identifying features.  Visitors will also have the opportunity to feel feathers and explore skulls and other bird parts like feet and bones.  Bring your cameras to capture their beauty.


5:45pm: Vegetarian Pizza, Salad, and Chicken-Vegetable Pasta Buffet, with 2 alcoholic beverages

Silent Auction and Wind Under Wings Award

Field Trips

Friday April 3:

8:00am to 4:00pm FIELD TRIP ($20 per person)

Late Winter Birding in the Eastern Upper Peninsula, led by Leonard Graf (limit 16 participants)

Meet at 8:00 am in the Holiday Inn Express Lobby from which we will carpool to the Upper Peninsula.  We will search for Snowy Owls, Northern Shrikes, Rough-legged Hawks, and other winter migrants and residents through Mackinac County.  We will eat lunch at a restaurant before returning to Mackinaw City.

7:00pm to 10:00pm FIELD TRIP ($20 per person)

Owl Banding and Winter Constellations and Birdy Myths at Headlands Dark Sky Park, led by Ed Pike and Kathy Bricker (limit 24 participants)

This trip offers the best chance of the weekend to see migrating owls.  Attendees will also learn about winter constellations and view them if conditions permit.  At dusk we will set up mist nets and an owl calling station, targeting Northern Saw-whet Owls.   Captured owls will be measured, aged, sexed, banded, photographed, and released.  Ed will demonstrate techniques that biologists use to learn about these nocturnal hunters, share highlights of 25 years of research on 2,000 owls of eight species, and show a film about owl banding.   From the Headlands entrance, follow the signs to the Guest House.

Sunday April 5:

5:30am to 12:00pm FIELD TRIP ($20 per person, adults only)

Sharp-tailed Grouse Lek Trip to Upper Peninsula, led by Steve Baker and Leonard Graf (limit 10 participants)

This early morning trip will allow attendees to witness the courtship ritual of these grouse, including competitive courtship dancing and calls.  Meet at 5:30 am at the Mackinaw City State Welcome Center/Rest Area on South Nicolet St. We will carpool in four vehicles and drive about an hour to a Sharptailed Grouse lek.  It is easily viewed from the vehicles, which will serve as blinds. The birds gather at dawn and the dancing should be going strong by sunrise. Dress warmly so windows can be open to let in the amazing sounds of the birds on the lek.  There are no bathroom facilities until leaving the lek at about 8 am so plan accordingly.

8:00am to 4:00pm FIELD TRIP ($20 per person)

Late Winter Birding in the Eastern Upper Peninsula, led by Greg Bodker (limit 10 participants)

Meet at 8:00 am at the Mackinaw City Public School from which we will carpool to the Upper Peninsula.  We will search for Snowy Owls, Northern Shrikes, Rough-legged Hawks, and other winter migrants and residents through Mackinac County.  We will eat lunch at a restaurant before returning to Mackinaw City.

10:00am to Noon GOLDEN EAGLE WATCH (free)

Join Bob Pettit and other Interpreters at the Hawk Watch near the Recreation Complex to search for your favorite or rare raptors.  Whatever flies over will be pointed out, with information about its migration and life habits, and identification in flight.

Interpreters and Field Trip Leaders

Francie Krawcke Bio: Francie’s Dad once asked her what she wanted to do with her life.  Be happy was her response.  Little did he know at the time she was to embark on over a 20-year journey that would take her to 35 different states and 2 countries teaching with birds of prey.  With degrees from Northern Michigan University and Certified Interpretative Guide from the National Association of Interpretation, Francie is specifically trained in theory and practice of interpretation and environmental education.  She has presented at national and international conferences, teacher training workshops, developed environmental conservation curriculum and had loads of fun.  As Executive Director of Michigan Avian Experience, she enjoys sharing these birds to help others be happy too.



Sarah Gilmore Bio: Sarah, working with Michigan Avian Experience, has always called Michigan home. She holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of Michigan with a concentration in environmental education.  Sarah has been teaching for a decade and having more fun on the job than she ever thought possible. She is a Certified Interpretive Guide through the National Association for Interpretation and in 2015 was awarded the Region 4 “Outstanding New Interpreter Award” through the same organization. Working directly with injured non-releasable birds of prey for nearly a decade, Sarah has learned many lessons from these amazing predators and delivered hundreds of raptor programs crisscrossing the state and beyond.



Steve Baker Bio: A retired veterinarian from Indian River, Steve has observed raptor migration in the Straits of Mackinac since the early 1980s.  He serves on the Board of Directors of Mackinac Straits Raptor Watch and has been the principal volunteer spring hawk counter since 2011 as well as helping with waterbirds.  Steve leads field trips and gives programs for several Audubon societies and land conservancies.  He enjoys botanizing (especially for native orchids and ferns), kayaking, hiking, taking nature photographs, and trying to learn the dragonflies.



Greg Bodker Bio: Greg has been a serious birder since 2006, combining his interest in nature, and photography. Greg has led birding trips for Michigan Audubon and served on its Board of Directors for three years.  He enjoys delivering birding and nature education presentations to audiences throughout Michigan and in Texas.  Greg has birded in all of Michigan’s 83 counties and in most of North America.  He is excited to report he saw his 625th North American bird species, a Tufted Duck, in Southwest Michigan in 2019.  Greg was named as a winner in Michigan Nature Association’s 2018 and 2019 photo contests.



Kathy & Jim Bricker: Kathy and her husband Jim took courses and worked in water quality research at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston throughout the 1970s.  Kathy served as the first executive director of Little Traverse Conservancy before they moved to Washington, D.C. for two decades, where she ended her working career at the Ocean Conservancy.  They enjoy travel to remote places, especially in northern Canada, to see stars, birds, and wildlife.  These experiences have provided materials for several films and slide shows that they offer, including Raving About Raptors.  In 2005, Kathy and Jim retired to the Bricker family cottage on Burt Lake and to Cheboygan, where they volunteer to conserve the night sky and wildlife habitat.



Leonard Graf Bio: Leonard is a licensed bird bander who has birded on all seven continents. He brings over 25 years of experience as a part time volunteer hawk and waterbird counter at the Whitefish Point Bird Observatory. Leonard has spent over 20 years leading winter birding tours to Sault Ste. Marie and leads state wide birding trips for local Audubon clubs. He co-authored the annotated checklist, “Birds of Leelanau County and Sleeping Bear National Lakeshore.”



Bev Kirby Bio: Bev has long been an avid birder, volunteering with Michigan Audubon’s Winter Bird Feeder Survey and Cornell University’s Project Feederwatch since the beginning of both citizen science programs.  She volunteered and watched hawks at Mackinac Straits for many years before Mackinac Straits Raptor Watch was founded and continues as volunteer greeter whenever she can.  Bev worked at Birmingham Public School District for 35 years.  A native Canadian, Bev is seldom seen without a smile on her face and her husband Jack by her side.



Dave Mayberry Bio: Dave works in landscape design and execution.  For this, he travels frequently to Mackinac Island where he has observed the spring raptor migration for many years.  He serves on the Board of Directors of Mackinac Straits Raptor Watch, which he co-founded.  He created the public information kiosks at the hawk and owl research sites and manages MSRW’s merchandise effort.



Ed Pike Bio: retired from Michigan’s Department of Natural Resources, has conducted bird research for four decades.  As a licensed bird bander, he studied Barn Swallows and Piping Plovers, serving on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Piping Plover Recovery Team and chairing the D.N.R.’s Piping Plover Recovery Team. Wanting to learn the importance of the Straits of Mackinac to raptors, he secured funding for the first spring hawk count in 2004 and has banded more than 2,000 owls of eight species, working both spring and fall migrations as a volunteer.  Ed co-founded and chairs the Mackinac Straits Raptor Watch.



Bruce Seeger: Bruce relocated to Cheboygan from downstate a decade ago.  Interested in birds for most of his life, he joined Straits Area Audubon Society and participates in the annual Cheboygan Christmas Bird Counts. Seeger learned about the Hawk Count from an article in the Cheboygan Daily Tribune announcing that professional counter Kevin Georg was hired to do the first count.  Seeger credits Kevin Georg for teaching him much about raptors and their identification during countless hours at the hawk watch over five years, including the magical day when nearly five thousand red-tail hawks were counted.